Norbert Elías demonstrates in La sociedad cortesana and El proceso de civilización how the codification of gestures and the control of posture, among other “table manners,” can also be oppressive mechanisms, even for the upper classes. For Foucault, however, the rationalizing and disciplining process responds to a will for domination and power (negative bias), while for Elías, this is the path on which civilization advances (positive character).